Close Protection Operations
• while in the country, this may be a team appointed within the VIP’s security team, or part of the special SWAT police unit,
• while abroad, this is typically a team included in the special SWAT police units or army troops delegated to support the security of the VIP’s visit,
• once this team together with the ADVANCE team conducts a bomb reconnaissance of all the places included in the client’s schedule, those places are directly (physically) or electronically protected (24h security),
• they may also be compatible, and belong to the inner or intermediate cordon,
• TO ESTABLISH WHY SOME PEOPLE KILL / KIDNAP OTHERS – THEIR MOTIVES!
• AGAINST WHAT OR WHOM DO WE PROTECT THE VIP?
• WHEN AND WHERE CAN IT HAPPEN?
• PLAN OF ATTACK STAGE BY STAGE
• HOW DO WE PREVENT IT AND GATHER INFORMATION?
• WHAT DO OUR MISTAKES TEACH US?
• TO BECOME FAMOUS,
• TO ATTRACT THE ATTENTION OF THE INDIVIDUAL OR PUBLIC OPINION,
• TO SATISFY ONE’S GREED,
• TO REPAIR THE WORLD OR THE COUNTRY,
• TO DEVELOP A RELATIONSHIP WITH THE KIDNAPPED PERSON,
• TO MAKE MONEY – FOR RANSOM,
• TO AFFECT THE DOMESTIC OR INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL SITUATION,
SIX MAJOR MOTIVES:
PSYCHOLOGICAL - culprits with severe personality disorder, frequently mentally ill, which causes delusions,
PERSONAL – culprits who often have an indirect or direct contact with the client and attempt murder because of revenge/jealousy. Characteristically, they are extremely suspicious, which results in their hostile relations with the environment,
ECONOMIC – the culprits commit a murder or kidnapping for purely financial reasons.
These are people with socialised conduct or social adjustment disorders.
IDEOLOGICAL – based on religious and cultural differences,
SEXUAL – typically, these people feature extreme emotional coldness and are able do camouflage and control their anxiety states.
COINCIDENTAL – the people who accidentally find themselves in an inappropriate place and time. Riots, high-risk places in the cities, nightclubs, big public events!
• an individual or a group? (how big?)
• what is the level of their knowledge and professionalism?
• do they have a criminal record so that they can be easily detected?
• do they have any external support (e.g. a mole),
• when the VIP stays on the office/company premises?
• when the VIP is travelling?
• when the VIP gives a public speech/participates in an event?
• somewhere on the route (choke points, an ambush),
• today, tomorrow, in the nearest future, in undetermined time...
• do the media intensify the problem?
• is the motive ideologically-related?
• is there any coincidental risk (the country, political standing, trouble spots),
• gathering information on the target (passive or/and active) – amber stage,
• static and active watching – red stage,
• methodical analysis of behaviour and habits,
• fixing the time, place, method and escape route,
• completing the mission / the attack,
• escape / evacuation
• physical force,
• poison (the toxic and radioactive isotope of polonium - Alexander Litvinenko)
• a knife, a sharp tool (small and easy to hide - Imelda Marcos 1972),
• a gun, machine gun, or sniper rifle shot (Park Chung Hee),
• an explosive device (IED) – its location (judge Falcone),
• a mass attack? (Eduard Shevardnadze)
• intelligence actions and information gathered by the Advance group,
• gathering information from friends and acquaintances,
• penetrating gangs, informants,
• a close relationship with the VIP’s immediate environment (who can always notice a detail we have overlooked),
• media informants,
• a Counter Surveillance team or agent,
• local security / police or military services,
• international co-operation, information on the threat given by the security service of the country visited by the VIP,
• a residence located in a quiet residential area accessed by an extremely narrow one-way road,
• the residence was unprotected,
• many various roads led to that area,
• the attack was carried out in a bottleneck,
• very close to his residence,
• had Martin Schleyer’s CP agents been alert and determined?
• had they been surprised?
• should they have opened fire, or escaped from the assassins’ car on impulse?
• had there been any chance to successfully open fire?
• 4 agents were shot dead within 45 seconds
• what was the motive for the kidnapping?
• what could have improved the VIP’s security?
• how did it end?
EDUARD SHEVARDNADZE – the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union in 1991, the President of Georgia from 1995 to 2003.
• travelled in a convoy of 9-10 cars,
• had a well-organised CP team,
• the team had received many signals of the threat,
• other attempts to murder Shevardnadze had been made before,
• the CP agents had frequently chosen the same route...
1. Gathering information
• Assignments, dates, time, type of visit,
• Identifying other VIPs, guests, etc.,
• The VIPs’ special requirements,
• Required transport and accommodation,
• Initial threat evaluation.
2. Telephone cooperation with:
• Head Coordinator,
• Head of Accommodation,
• transport staff
- a representative of a limousine hire company,
- a representative of the aircraft charter company,
- Public security services / intelligence
- federal services
- state services
- local services
• The venue of summit meetings
3. Plan the assignment for the Advance team
a. Priority evaluation
b. Assignment – reconnaissance
c. Drawing up a control list
a. at the airport – gathering information
- maps, routes, local attractions,
- an overall plan of the airport / car park,
- checking car rental offers,
b. on the way to the hotel, watch:
- the traffic and the surroundings,
- the routes and the road condition,
- the overall topography,
c. upon the arrival at the hotel
- watch the entire building,
- the hall, corridors and service facilities,
- the car park and the number of people/cars,
- entrances and exits.
2. Keep in regular contact with:
a. the headquarters of the company
b. inform the main POC about the visit
3. Priorities during the visits and reconnaissance
a. Inform all the main contacts and confirm the dates of meetings,
b. Establish priorities and draw up control lists,
4. Inspection of the surroundings
a. The agents identify their activity zone
b. All the planned stopovers must be identified
It is necessary to obtain the key hotel staff’s names and numbers.
a. Head Manager
b. Resident Manager
c. Booking Manager
d. Head of security
e. Night Shift Manager
f. Restaurant staff / Banquet (Catering) Manager
g. Head Hotel Operator
i. Room Service Manager
if possible, it is crucial to arrange one meeting with all the persons listed above
a. The surroundings
b. The occupied area / perimeter
c. The structure and plan of the building
e. Fire and security systems
Selection of rooms
a. The Client’s suite(s)
- The suite’s arrangement and adjacent rooms (adjacent doors)
- The rooms above and below
- The distance from the staircases and lifts
- Suspended ceilings, balconies
- Window exposure
- Emergency exits
- The Clients’ special requirements – beds, a VCR, a DVD, a fridge, etc.
- Detection/identification of a “safe haven” in the suite(s).
- Its location with reference to the Client, the exits and traffic
- Furniture (special requirements)
- Furniture arrangement – the beds outside, and the tables and chairs inside
- Maps and notice boards
- An extensive telephone line/direct line
- A corridor control point (if necessary)
- Original keys or duplicates
- Floor diagrams / plans
- All the necessary information (assignment, route, etc.)
- All the necessary administrative information
- All the necessary emergency numbers
- Other details
- The Client(s) staff
- Agents in a further distance
- Provide security
- Remain in a single area or wing, if possible
The Post’s tasks
a. Control points
b. Intelligence units
c. Special tasks
Special hotel services
a. Catering services / banquets / room service
- selected menus
- flexible time
- privileges in the kitchen
- CP room service
- Food for the CPs (beverages, coffee, etc.)
b. Miscellaneous services
- a hairstylist/beautician
- a spa
- a pharmacy
General information on the hotel
a. Formalities / a welcome ceremony upon the VIP’s arrival (if applicable)
b. Varying entrances and exits
c. If possible, the main hall should be avoided
d. The baggage
e. Bills and tips
f. Cleaning staff and the Client’s room services provided by the CPs
g. Protecting valuables
b. catering services
d. Premises Manager
e. Initiating Committee
* exchange telephone numbers
2. Establish the agenda and the type of meeting:
a. a charity event, an award ceremony, a sport event, etc.,
c. the moment of switching off the lights, a balloon release, the crowd’s interaction,etc.
d. a direct participation in the VIP’s event, if applicable
3. Access – the access structure
a. private or public
b. free to the public
c. tickets – how many? At what price? For whom?
d. by invitation only
e. a list of guests
f. type of crowd
g. Who will control the access?
h. How should the access be controlled?
i. Is the coverage relevant?
4. Appropriate outfit
5. How will the seats be arranged?
a. for all guests
b. for the Client / type of privileges
c. for the agents
d. a proper arrangement of the posts
6. Floor diagrams / plans
a. entrances and exits
b. a waiting room, a guests’ room, space for the press, etc.
c. toilets / telephones
d. car park: entrance and exit
e. fire extinguishers / utility services control
f. personnel location
g. a copy to be studied by each agent
7. How will the Client arrive and depart?
a. normal conditions
b. emergency conditions
8. A waiting room, guests’ rooms, space for the press, etc.
b. what should they contain
9. Find out the location of the toilets and telephones
10. The vehicles’ arrival and departure point
a. Where will the vehicles be parked?
b. Where will the driver wait if the meeting is extended?
11. Arrangements with the catering staff
a. Type of service (i.e. a buffet, meals at the table, etc.)
b. Who will be the waiters?
c. Select the staff for the Client
d. A random selection of the menu
12. Medical security – will it be available or not?
a. A marked space for the press
b. Press conference agenda
c. How do they get access?
d. How will their identity be established?
e. Can an agent be assigned?
13. The predicted demonstrations and distracting incidents
a. The environment
b. By post/function?
•Who can do what?
•Who will give a speech to them?
14. Analyse specific points:
a. An outdoor event – weather conditions
c. Large crowds
d. Structural stability of the interim premises
e. IDs checked by the personnel
f. Information on the personnel, if available
g. The control of utility services on the premises
1. If possible, arrange a meeting with the Manager
a. Typically, these actions will be taken immediately before the visit
2. What type of visit will it be?
a. unofficial, private
c. formal, etc.
3. Selection of seats – access control to the Client (The Client’s wishes)
a. separated, private or public
b. secured, with an option of prompt evacuation
c. Separated from the flow of patrons
d. Where will the agents be posted?
e. Will they eat? How?
4. Entrances and exits
a. A standard VIP’s arrival
b. A public entrance, standard entrance for the VIP
c. emergency exit
5. Car park
a. Arrival and departure
b. Where will the vehicles wait?
c. The drivers stay with the vehicles
6. Rooms (if necessary)
7. A diagram / building plan (if there is enough time)
a. All the important points need to be illustrated
b. Provided to each agent
8. Other points taken into account
a. The media – should they be expected?
b. An agent and a maitre 'd to ensure privacy
c. How will they be located?
d. Traffic patterns on the route to the restaurant
e. Autographs – how does the Client want to sign them? (if applicable)
1. The main airport terminal
a. Contact the operation agent – the time of operation
b. An overall plan of the airport (topography) (diagrams)
2. Necessary information
a. The type of airplane (G-2, BAC 111, B-707, etc.)
b. Airplane number and distinguishing marks
c. The airplane owner
d. Departure point (fixed base)
e. ETD and ETA
f. Contact details of the airplane crew
3. How will the vehicles be located?
a. Arrival and departure
b. Can they approach the airplane across the apron?
c. Do they need an escort?
d. How many are allowed?
e. When can they be provided?
4. Entrance and exit ways for the vehicles
b. Entrance gates, the traffic, construction.
5. Rooms and facilities
a. Private telephone
c. Optionally an office (if nothing else is available)
6. Special equipment
a. Airport stairs
c. Special airplane security
7. The baggage and provisions
a. How much does the Client have?
b. Find out the amount and provide a monitoring system
c. What weight can the airplane lift?
d. Who will supervise the flight (if applicable)?
e. Who will load the baggage? What from? Into what vehicle?
8. The agents’ weapons – the agents’ conduct on board
9. Announcing the take-off
1. Airlines representative
a. this person may coordinate all the necessary arrangements, if required
2. A special location of the seats for the VIP and the agents
a. First-class tickets are necessary
b. Board the airplane last and leave first
3. The airplane sections
a. Typically a VIP-class/first-class
b. Telephone and toilets
a. Find out the amount and provide a monitoring system
b. Provide enough porters – the agents stay with them
c. One agent keeps a baggage receipt (if necessary)
d. Request that the Client’s baggage is loaded first
5. Arrival / parking / departure
a. The action must be coordinated with the airport security
b. They can possibly assist the transfer (if applicable)
c. Parking on the apron is rather unlikely
d. It is likely that the escort’s vehicle may collect the VIP together with a small group.
a. The airport security may not be ignored, however a representative of airport services may be present in the process
b. No agents’ weapons may be carried on board during commercial flights – the weapons must be unloaded and locked in the baggage The weapons must be declared.
c. Determine the agents’ behaviour on board
1. Limousines – contact a rental company or manager
a. Necessary information
- Which type of car is accepted?
- Which colour of car is accepted?
- What facilities must a car have, if any?
- Available budget
2. Instructions for the driver (if he/she is not a member of CP)
a. Car maintenance/trunk supervision
b. The driver’s actions
c. The driver’s alertness
d. Make them feel like part of the CP team
e. How to keep in regular contact?
f. Procedures on how to drive properly in a car column
g. Will they take the cars home or leave them at the hotel? (this must be determined)
h. How to visually inspect the car
3. Planning travel route
a. While planning, include:
- Time and distance
- Traffic flow and road conditions
- Ambush threat (a covering, choke points, etc.)
- The distance from security zones and hospitals
- Toll booths on highways, etc.
b. Day and night driving
c. Make sure all the drivers know the route
d. Map out alternate routes
4. Car rental
a. The Advance Agent needs a car
b. A support car (if necessary)
c. A car with a manual gearbox
d. Keys for all the CPs
e. Credit cards are required
5. Car columns
- limousine, following, leading (if applicable)
- a police escort
6. Public transport – taxis, buses, trains, etc.
a. Include them as alternate transport
b. Study the timetables
c. Learn the routes
d. Are any special arrangements possible?
1. What type of facilities is available?
2. The routes between the closest hospitals and every parking place – an exact location of Accident and Emergency
3. Selection of hospitals
a. Private, public, government, military hospitals and clinics
b. 24-hour Accident and Emergency
c. Is it a shock and trauma treatment centre?
d. Does it have a burn ward?
e. The total blood reserve / is it safe?
f. VIP rooms
g. Staff and CP agents’ rooms
h. A helicopter landing pad
3. Mark the routes to hospitals on the CP map.
4. The hospital staff will require the VIP’s health details (i.e. allergies, medication, medical history, etc.)
5. If possible, find a 24-hour pharmacy
2. The reaction time during every stopover on the route
3. An emergency plan
4. Transfer in an emergency situation
1. Find out which agency/department has jurisdiction over every stopover on the route –contact them
2. Formal or informal authorisation
c. Specialist equipment
d. Required local licences
3. Special escort
a. Officers off duty
b. Un-uniformed officers
c. Escorts from the car column
4. Emergency procedure plan
5. Possible places of transfer
6. Secret Service
The Advance team’s procedures are exactly the same as above plus the following issues for international trips:
THREAT EVALUATION IN THE DESTINATION REGION
1. The evaluation must be carried out prior to the trip, and may be a separate process depending on the Client’s requirements and financial resources.
1. Must be valid
2. Enough visa pages
3. Where are you going? What is in your passport?
4. Is a visa required?
5. The type of trip (a business/tourist trip, etc.)
1. Gather up-to-date information on health issues during international trips (from the Health Ministry, etc.)
2. Ensure a sufficient reserve of the required medicine – check with a GP.
1. If no local agents are involved – make a local contact.
2. An interpreter/translator
3. Check with an embassy or consulate
4. The government and foreign policy
5. The local currency – what is the exchange rate?
1. How can they help? (Equipment, secret service, support, etc.)
2. How can they cause trouble? (surplus of units, corruption, no competences, etc.)
3. Contact with RSO (recognised security organisation)
4. Courtesy upon arrival.
1. Usually receives a fuller and more extended briefing than the rest of the group.
2. Assigned tasks
5. Transport arrangements
6. ID system
7. Emergency plans and reaction tactics.
2. Keep your finger off the trigger and out of the trigger guard untill you are ready to shoot.
3. Never point the barrel at any living being.
4. Make sure your target and what is behind it.