Private Military Contractors

Mihail Păduraru


GENERAL OVERVIEW

Private Military Company / Private Security Company


Essentially, any private military company is a private army firm. These companies offer highly trained personnel along with equipment such as weapons, armored vehicles and other necessary tools of the trade in order to accomplish any kind of mission in hostile environment. Usually military companies are contracted by governmental institution, private business or NGO to achieve mission objective efficiently in quickest time possible

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Private Military Contractor / Private Security Contractor

A private military contractor is a person who offers special services for both private individuals, firms and governmental bodies, which is related to the military or security work. Military contractor usually operates in the high risk countries and provides complex security solutions for those who need it.
Additionally PMC can be hired as instructor in the areas related with his previous experience and personal skills


Hostile Environment Protection / High Risk Security

A HEP / HRS are integrated security mission in the countries with elevated or extreme hazards. These types of assignments are generally conducted by special police or military units and security contractors within the areas of war zone. Following security personnel required specialized training prior commencement of deployment in high risk areas :

 Members of Police and Military units deployed for stabilization missions

 Members of Security staff for U.N missions

 Security Contractors working in high risk environment

 Close Protection Agents working in the countries with high crime rate


SECURITY ACRONYMS

TL / DL – Team Leader or Detail Leader

PPO / CPO – Personal Protection Officer / Close Protection Officer

RF – Right Flank

LF – Left Flank

RA – Rear Agent

SD – Surveillance Detection

ST – Security Team

CS – Counter Surveillance

PSD – Personal Security Detail

SB – Suicide Bomber

SF – Safe Haven

CHP – Choke point

RT / AT – Reconnaissance Team or Advance Team

HRA – High Risk Area

HRSD – High Risk Security Detail


TYPES OF THREATS DURING PMC DEPLOYMENT

A. DIRECT

1.IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICE - Usually home-made bomb deployed during unconventional military actions (usually by terrorist) which is constructed from parts repurposed from conventional military explosives with attached detonator




TYPES AND FEATURES OF IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES

Hidden Mortar/Artillery Projectiles - are one of most popular type of military munitions to conduct IED attacks on security contractor, local or international military units in Iraq and Afghanistan 

These are used in following scenarios: 

 detonated-either by wire or remote device

 time-delay triggered IEDs which can be detonated by operating phone

 placed in ground holes , dead animals or covered by natural environment

 usually selected 120-mm or larger artillery / mortar projectiles

 found alone or in groups

 can be detonated from approaching or parked vehicle

 significant strike force

 difficult to counter






Vehicle IED - use vehicle to transport or a container of explosive devices. Popular methods of beating check point or other obstacles on the way to reach final explosion point however past cases show that often these types of attacks in war zones has involved the use of multiple cars. In such situation, the lead vehicle is used as a decoy or barrier buster. Once stopped or neutralized and with government forces starting to search and inspect - the main IED car comes suddenly reaching mission objective easily resulting in more casualties. 
The explosive charge include items such as mortar rounds, rocket motors, rocket warheads ,artillery rounds or other deadly home-made contents such as spikes , screws and metal sharp objects.

 great impact

 great capacity

 hard to detect

 detonating thru wire

 remote device or phone


SUICIDE BOMBER - is a person or group of people who carry IED to target as many people as possible. Explosives with fragmentation can be placed in a vest, belt, backpack or clothing that is deliberately fixed to attached this material concealed. Usually activated by command system thru button. 
Vehicle-borne suicide bombs employ the same methods and characteristics of other package or vehicle bombs using a command detonation firing system

 common all around the world

 significant threat

 hard to detect

 hard to counter

 easy to create






BOMBS AND IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES RISK INDEX 2012 - 2016

AFGANISTAN– VERY HIGH

IRAQ– HIGH

SYRIA– HIGH

NIGERIA– HIGH

SOMALIA– HIGH

LYBIA– HIGH

LEBANON– HIGH

COLOMBIA– MODERATE

MEXICO– MODERATE

IED TYPES OF IMPACT EFFECTS

1. OVERPRESSURE DEMAGE to the lungs, ears, abdomen, and other pressuresensitive organs. Blast lung injury, a condition caused by the extreme pressure of an explosion, is the leading cause of illness and death for initial survivors of an explosion 

2. FRAGMENTATION INJURIES caused by projectiles thrown by the blast – material from the bomb, shrapnel, or flying debris that penetrates the body and causes damage

3. IMPACT INJURIES caused when the blast throws a victim into another object, i.e. fractures, amputation, and trauma to the head and neck.

4. THERMAL INJURIES caused by burns to the skin, mouth, sinus, and lungs

5. DELAYTED HEALTH EFFECTS can cause eye injuries and abdominal injuries, may not be apparent initially, but can cause symptoms and even fatalities hours to months after the event

6. PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAUMA for post- attack survivors, first responders, and others are not unusual in the aftermath of a high-casualty event.




PREVENTIVE MEASURES - SECURITY CONTRACTOR vs IED

1. INTELLIGENCE AND RECONNAISSANCE ON VISITING SITES

2. AVOIDING CONVOY DRIVING DURING BUSIEST HOURS

3. CHANGING ROUTINE

4. HIGH VIGILANCE AND AWARENESS

5. ALERTNESS FOR SUSPICIOUS BEHAVIOR AND OBJECTS

6. COUNTER IED TRAINING FOR SECURITY PERSONNEL

7. ED DOGS IF POSSIBLE

8. ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY SUCH AS UAV’S , TRACE DETECTORS , MILLIMITER WAVE ARE STILL DEVELOPED AND MIGHT BE AVAILABLE ONLY FOR GOVERNMRNT UNITS



1.KIDNAPPING – the unlawful act of capturing and carrying away a person against their will and holding them in false imprisonment


MAJOR REASONS
FINANCIAL / POLITICAL / PSYCHOLOGICAL / COMBINED

BACKGROUND : kidnapping for ransom as today’s most significant source of terror financing in Middle East and Africa while in South and Central America in remains mainly easy source of enrichment

TOP 5 KIDNAP COUNTRIES in 2015

NIGERIA / PAKISTAN / MEXICO / INDIA / LIBYA

HOW TO PREVENT

– GOOD INTELLIGENCE / ADVANCE WORK ON VISITING PLACES

– SELF AWARENESS AND VIGILANCE

– CLIENT STAYS LOW PROFILE

– CONTROL OF INFORMATION

– MAN POWER

– USE OF ALTERNATIVE ROADS

– CHANGE OF ROUTINE


1. ARMED ROBERRY - is when you use force or a weapon to gain access into someone’s home or committed when one person gains possession or control of another person's property by weapon, force or the threat of force.




BACKGROUND – in Africa, South and Central America armed robbery is among most common crime committed, often accidental caused by lack of environment awareness. These crimes have usually financial ground however often accompanied by violence. Countries such as South Africa , Nigeria , Kenya , Liberia , Brazil , Venezuela , Colombia ,Mexico , Salvador and Honduras have constant problem with that criminal activity which often has a form of expedient carjacking and express kidnapping.
In middle east armed robbery is rather spontaneous and cn be associated with extortion

HOW TO PREVENT:
– GOOD INTELLIGENCE / ADVANCE WORK ON VISITING PLACES

– SELF AWARENESS AND VIGILANCE

– CLIENT STAYS LOW PROFILE

– CONTROL OF INFORMATION

– SEALED SECURITY

– DRIVING WITHOUT UNNECESSARY STOPOVERS

– CHANGE OF ROUTINE

TYPES OF THREATS DURING PMC DEPLOYMENT

B. INDIRECT

1. TERRORISM - the use of violence or the threat of violence, especially against civilians and governments officials in order to reach political or ideological goals.

BACKGROUND - From 2013 terrorism remains expanding globally with most of the threatening activities occurring in six countries — Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Libya, Nigeria and Syria.
These countries accounted for almost 80 per cent of the lives lost in 2014.
Although highly concentrated, terrorism is spreading to more places, with the number of countries experiencing more than hundreds of deaths year to year. These countries are Somalia, Lebanon, Yemen, Central African Republic and South Sudan. Apart from that , there are regional risk of terrorism attacks in other countries such as India, Philippines , Mali , Algeria or Colombia.









MOST VIOLENT TERRORISM ORANIZATIONS
The Islamic State 

One of the best logistically organized terrorist group in the World with almost 35.000 of members. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, ISIS or simply the Islamic State) is increasing the total number of terror acts annually . Thanks to financial resources , allies and direct control of oil fields, the organization is mostly self-sufficient and operational capable in various countries. Organization core cities are Rakka in Syria and Mosul in Iraq.
Major objective is to spread the caliphate under Sunnis command




Al Qaeda
Al-Qaeda "the base"in Arabic is the network of extremists organized by Osama bin Laden
The death of bin Laden, who was killed in a joint operation by U.S. troops and CIA operatives in May 2011, complicated the future of al-Qaeda.
Nevertheless , this organization remains still active , both ideologically and operationally around the world with many following allies. The principal objectives of al-Qaeda are to drive Americans and American influence out of all Muslim nations, especially Saudi Arabia; destroy Israel and generally minimize the impact of Western culture on the Arab countries.
Bin Laden also said that he wishes to unite all Muslims and establish, by force if necessary, an Islamic nation adhering to the rule of the first Caliphs.







Boko Haram

Founded by Mohammed Yusuf militant Nigerian Islamist group is known to be very effective thanks to funding from Al-Qaeda and ISIS. This organization is spreading intolerance towards western education and culture influence and have killed around 5500 civilians between 2009 and 2015. Boko Haram founded as a Sunni Islamic group, have been promoting extremely intolerant Sharia law in places of their power in order to change official government, which is open to the western culture and other religions.




Al Shabaab

Extremist group from Somalia linked with Al Qaeda.
Decades of weak government, civil conflict as well as poverty pushed Somalia into hands of radical Islamist groups and war lords.
Al-Shabaab's predecessor was al-Ittihad al-Islami (AIAI), which tried to create an Islamist emirate in Somalia. Group was partially funded by former al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden who wanted to spread power over African land. Al Shabaab is well known to conduct various attacks both on see and on government forces and African Union troops in Somalia.
Members of that organization often cross borders to carry out attacks in neighboring countries such as West Gate mall case in Nairobi in 2013.


Jemaah Islamiah

Southeast Asian militant Islamist terrorist organization created in 1993 and dedicated to the regional Islamic caliphate in Southeast Asia. Group is closely cooperating with al-Qaeda and Moro Islamic Liberation Front with many members across Indonesia Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines.
Intelligence agencies and the United Nations claim that Abu Bakar Bashir is the spiritual head of Jemaah Islamiyah who in 2014 publicly pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.


FARC

Forças Armadas Revolucionárias da Colômbia or FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) was formed
in the 1960s. Together with National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional ) they claim to be an army of peasant Marxist-Leninists with a motive of anti-imperialism fight. Kidnapping, extortion, illegal mining are among many activities of FARC.
The government of Colombia recognizes FARC as a terrorist organization along with many other North American, Latin American and European governments however in 2015 group leader Iván Márquez promised to speed up the peace process and ultimate ceasefire.



Paraguayan People’s Army

Ejército del Pueblo Paraguayo or EPP is a communist guerrilla movement allied with FARC that has conducted various armed operations, including bombings, ambushes , shootings and kidnappings of civilians as part of an organized insurgency aimed at government. Group is operating from 2005 mostly in northern Paraguay, with most incidents occurring in Concepción Department, as well as the neighboring departments of Canindeyú ,San Pedro and along Brazilian border. The EPP is relatively small and possess good intelligence therefore difficult to chase.




HOW TO PREVENT BECOMING ACCIDENTIAL
TARGET OF TERRORISM

 GOOD INTELLIGENCE / ADVANCE WORK ON VISITING PLACES

 SELF AWARENESS AND VIGILANCE

 AVOIDING TRAVELS TO HOT SPOTS

 LACK OF HESITATION IF NEEDED


1.POLITICAL UNREST – widespread violent public disorder and disturbance of peace caused by a group of persons, protesting against another group or government policy in the streets.

BACKGROUND – due to many recent social and political crises in various countries , the general sensation of instability and lack of security is dramatically increasing among the people around the World. Riots are often violent and sudden so being aware of current political situation and overview in the country of deployment is being necessary. Following events have influenced various political unrest across the Globe between 2010-2015

 Arab Spring

 Syrian Civil War

 European Migrant Crisis

 Corruption in South and Central American
countries

 Pro-russian unrest in Ukraine

 Terrorism acts across the World



HOW TO PREVENT PROBLEMS WITH POLITICAL UNREST

 STAYING AWAY FROM ANY SORT OF RIOTS

 IF HAPPEN MOVING AS FAR AS POSSIBLE AND AS QUICK AS POSSIBLE

 IF ON THE OFFICIAL ROAD BLOCK OR CHECK POINT , YOU NEED TO IDENTIFY YOURSELF AND OBEY ALL INSTRUCTIONS OF POLICE OR MILTARY

 STAY CALM AND BE READY TO MOVE



THE GENESIS OF SHIA-SUNNI CONFLICT

Sunni and Shia Islam are the two main stream of Islam. The demographic breakdown between the two groups is difficult to assess and varies by source, but a good approximation is that 85-90% of the world's Muslims are Sunni and 10-15% are Shia, with most Shias belonging to the Twelver tradition and the rest divided between many other groups. Sunnis are a majority in most Muslim communities: in Southeast Asia, China, South Asia, Africa, and most of the Arab world. Shia make up the majority of the citizen population in Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain, as well as being a politically significant minority in Lebanon. Indonesia has the largest number of Sunni Muslims, while Iran has the largest number of Shia Muslims in the world.
Pakistan has the second-largest Sunni as well as the second-largest Shia Muslim population in the world.

BACKGROUND : the historic background of the Sunni–Shia split lies in the breakup that happened when the Islamic prophet Muhammad died in the year 632, leading to a conflict over succession in the Islamic communities across the world. Currently there are various ongoing shia-sunni conflicts that are destabilizing security in Middle East and Africa.

Yemeni Civil War 2015 – ongoing

Iraq Crisis 2014 – ongoing

Syrian Civil War 2011 – ongoing

Lebanon Political Crisis 2014 – ongoing



PRIVATE MILITARY CONTRACTOR COUNTRIES OF INTREST

 IRAQ

 AFGHANISTAN

 DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF KONGO

 SOMALIA

 SYRIA




PERSONAL SECURITY DETAIL COUNTRIES OF INTREST

 SOUTH AFRICA

 LIBYA

 ALGERIA

 BRAZIL

 COLOMBIA

 PARAGUAY

 YEMEN





Safety rules

1. Treat all firearms as if they are loaded – SAFETY CHECK.

2. Keep your finger off the trigger and out of the trigger guard untill you are ready to shoot.

3. Never point the barrel at any living being.

4. Make sure your target and what is behind it.



WEAPONS



AKMS

Caliber 7,62 x 39

Barrel length 415 mm

Length 920 mm
     stock extended
           655 mm
 stock folded

Weight 3,3 kg

Rate of fire 600 r/min

Muzzle velocity 715 m/s


AR–15 (M-4)

Caliber           .223 Rem
                       5,56 x 45
                          5,56 NATO

Barrel length      7 in – 24 in

     Weight                  2,27 – 3,9 kg

Rate of fire           800 r/min

Muzzle velocity      975 m/s








Stay Safe my Brothers 

SEMPER FI 


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